In press brake forming, a work piece is positioned over the die block and the die block presses the sheet to form a shape. Usually bending has to overcome both tensile stresses and compressive stresses. When bending is done, the residual stresses cause the material to spring back towards its original position, so the sheet must be over-bent to achieve the proper bend angle. The amount of spring back is dependent on the material, and the type of forming. When sheet metal is bent, it stretches in length. The bend deduction is the amount the sheet metal will stretch when bent as measured from the outside edges of the bend. The bend radius refers to the inside radius. The formed bend radius is dependent upon the dies used, the material properties, and the material thickness.
The U-punch forms a U-shape with a single punch.
There are three basic types of bending on a press brake, each is defined by the relationship of the end tool position to the thickness of the material. These three are Air Bending, Bottoming and Coining. The configuration of the tools for these three types of bending are nearly identical. A die with a long rail form tool with a radiused tip that locates the inside profile of the bend is called a punch. Punches are usually attached to the ram of the machine by clamps and move to produce the bending force. A die with a long rail form tool that has concave or V shaped lengthwise channel that locate the outside profile of the form is called a die. Dies are usually stationary and located under the material on the bed of the machine. Note that some locations do not differentiate between the two different kinds of dies (punches and dies). The other types of bending listed use specially designed tools or machines to perform the work.